Thursday, February 11, 2010


Attack of the Blob?

The Chronicle of Higher Ed has a few pieces this week on for-profit higher education. They're revealing and thought-provoking, though not always in the ways intended.

As regular readers know, I worked for a while at a for-profit, which I call Proprietary U. It's one of the big ones -- you've heard of it -- and it's fairly typical for the sector. It runs programs in 'hot' occupational fields, with an unapologetic eye towards placing graduates in jobs. I was on the 'general education' side of the house, which was somewhat anomalous within the culture, but not entirely; the folks in the career placement office were quite clear on the importance of communication and critical thinking skills, which were identified mostly with gen ed. Teaching there involved one part Paolo Freire to three parts Henry Higgins: economic empowerment required some pretty substantial transmission of cultural capital.

In my time there, I was at odds with what became a fairly clear expectation that the student is always right. There was also a fixation on 'responsiveness' to the market that became a sort of institutional ADD. Most curricula changed every couple of semesters, and it wasn't unusual to have three different versions of the same program running at the same time. Curricular changes were handed down from Home Office, usually just a few weeks before the start of the semester. Since those changes often involved shifts in the credit hours for various courses, students who deviated in any way from the cohort to which they had been assigned -- whether because of transfer credits, part-time status, stopouts, course failures, or whatever -- were nearly impossible to schedule. (I'd imagine that the move to much more online instruction has rendered much of that moot by now.) In one memorable instance, Home Office executed a drastic, last-minute change to a popular program, but didn't bother updating the registrar's software to reflect it. We local administrators had to move heaven and earth to patch the holes. I eventually tired of the insanity and decamped for a community college.

That said, though, I still think that the flaws were largely in the execution, as opposed to the design. Many restaurants fail, but that doesn't mean that the restaurant industry is doomed. There's no particular reason that market responsiveness has to be mindless, or that making a profit has to mean neglecting quality. (As Toyota has discovered recently, neglecting quality can hit your profits pretty hard.) To my mind, the basic mistake has been bottom-feeding. You can't undercut community colleges on price; "taxed and unsubsidized" simply can't compete with "subsidized and untaxed." So instead of going for the low end of the market, the way to win is to go for the high end. Provide that personal attention and small class size that the elites offer, but give it to the kids who couldn't get into the Swarthmores of the world.

Still, part of what strikes me about the rapid rise of the for-profits -- and make no mistake, regionally accredited degree-granting for-profits are growing fast -- is that they've been made possible by the failings of the traditional system.

One of the Chronicle pieces quotes Cary Nelson, the President of the AAUP, as

liken[ing] the for-profit sector to "the blob," an alien life form that consumed everything in its path in the 1958 Steve McQueen movie of the same name.
"The blob would shimmer and then be half again as big as before," Mr. Nelson says. "You'd turn your attention away and look back and suddenly, it's blocking out most of the sun."

Exactly wrong. The for-profits didn't come from outer space, or for no particular reason. They emerged to fill gaps in the nonprofit system. Their growth is a direct and predictable reflection of the existing system's failures. If the best the AAUP can come up with is an analogy to space aliens, they just don't get it. And if they don't get it, they won't stop it. Which, so far, they haven't.

Where do the for-profits find the credentialed faculty to teach accredited classes? Hint: is there a shortage of prospective faculty out there?

Where do the for-profits find the students to fill their classes? Hint: how much capacity have the publics added in the last, say, thirty years? And how much of that is in forms and times that are convenient for people with jobs and/or kids?

The for-profits are growing because someone has to. Looking at what California is doing to its system of public higher education, nobody should be surprised to see that the for-profits are thriving there. Students who choose them are frequently the students who couldn't find what they wanted in the public system, or who found it but got shut out by budget cuts.

As Peter Smith correctly notes in a second article, the unmistakable trend of the last few decades in the public systems has been cost-shifting to the individual student. To the extent that costs go the students anyway, the competitive advantage of the publics diminishes. And when the cost-shifting is accompanied by watering-down of quality -- whether by adjuncting-out the faculty, or cheaping out on facilities, or stuffing classes ever larger, or any of the other deaths of a thousand cuts -- it's easy to understand why a student would choose to spend more to get more. That's even truer when getting more involves getting it at convenient times and places.

The for-profits have grown too large to be written off as irrelevant anymore. But for those who object to them, the way to fight them is not by attacking them directly. It's by offering a better alternative. Students and faculty didn't beat a path to the University of Phoenix because they read Milton Friedman. They did it because the U of P offered something they wanted in a way that made it more appealing than the alternatives. If you want to compete, you have to compete.

The blob is from this world, not some other. Until we understand that and act accordingly, it will just keep growing.

I think that's almost exactly right. I am especially in agreement with two points:

1. The lack of capacity expansion in (most) public 4-year institutions. While some of this is understandable (state support has not expanded what one might call rapidly; some states have been experiencing very slow population growth), some of it is not. Existing institutions tend to oppose the creation of new ones (California was--let me repeat that "WAS"--an exception here), because new state-supported institutions are seen as competition, not as serving a market or societal need. (Incidentally, the slow growth in capacity in the private 4-year institution sector has clearly helped drive tuition up.)

2. Cost-shifting. I even talk about this in my classes. Almost no one here actually prints and distributes a syllabus any more, for example. We post it on-line and expect the students to print it out if they choose to do so. (There's another incentive here, as well. If I print the syllabus, that's charged against my program's budget. If the students print it in a computer lab, that's charged against someone else's budget...) That a small example, but a telling one. My sense is that students have become even less likely to read the syllabus than they were when we handed it to them.

It has always been the case that regional (i.e., second-tier) public institutions anc CCs have been more time-and-place responsive than have flagship campuses. But even that becomes more difficult when resources get tight. Offering more sections at more convenient times runs into the minimum-class-size constraint, among other things. And my institution, for example, does not reimburse its faculty for mileage between the main campus and our outlying sites. (Trivia, to be sure, but if you have to drive 15 miles twice a week for 16 weeks...well, that's 480 miles, and gas (etc.) ain't cheap. The university is, though.)

I could go on for a while, but this should be enough for now.
I think you are overlooking an important aspect of the situation, which is that for-profits serve a population that wants a "college" degree for what is essentially a vo-tech education. This has led to an increasing confusion about what a college degree is, or should be. Combined with the now entrenched idea that anyone who wants one should get a college degree, this has led not only to the boom in for-profits but to many of the consumer-model problems in higher ed. Of course, the vast overproduction of Ph.D.s, especially in the humanities, is a factor here, too. But I really don't believe that a lot of students at for-profits go to them because there isn't room at the local state school - many go because of the promise of a quick "degree" they can fit in around their existing work schedule. I'm not saying that this isn't valuable or that there is no place for it, but come on - these are not colleges or universities, despite the name.
The for-profits are a fairly transparent reaction to needing a college degree to be a receptionist.
Anonymous at 9:52 has it, as does PunditisMaximus. Now everything requires a bachelor's degree even stuff that would be better served by associate's degrees or vo-tech programs. So the for-profits offer a bunch of "degrees" that are really only useful for the jobs that require a degree but don't actually need the skills from the degree. They suck up the oversupply of PhDs and a number of students who have the money to attend a for-profit but not the time/effort/intelligence to tough it out at a CC or 4-year.

And on the contrary, university programs ARE expanding. The University of California system expands enrollments every year, next year included. I suppose it helps that more undergrads means more tuition paying warm bodies. If they can theoretically increase class sizes, reduce aid, and reduce services, they'll come out ahead. They're also looking into, even with the budget cuts, a new medical school in southern california and new law schools at some of the campuses that don't currently have a law school. I don't know whether law/medical schools are more profitable than typical undergrad programs. My guess is that they are not, and that U of C is expanding without taking into consideration their own sustainability or relying on particularly optimistic models for the future.
Are degrees from places like U of P truly valued in the marketplace? I don't know the answer to that question. I know that if someone applied for a position here and they had such a degree, I would not be impressed, but that is base on prejudice, not any real data. So, do folks who graduate with a B.A. from U of P (or similar) have a perceived value in the marketplace equivalent to that of, say a 2nd-tier state college B.A?
Anonymous@9:52 writes for-profits serve a population that wants a "college" degree for what is essentially a vo-tech education.

Say what? A regionally accredited for-profit offers the same college degree that your "college" does. Further, to explicitly address FrauTech's comments, a Prop U that operates in this area gets significant demand for an elementary ed degree that is not met by Flagship U and those degrees are valued by employers.

By the way, one of the biggest flaws in the Flagship U ed program is that its classes are taught when research faculty want to teach, not in the late afternoon or at night when many students need them to be taught. Time and place, as identified in that article, are very important.

Finally, if The New Yorker has done its usual fact checking (Jan 4 article), the U of Calif enrollment shrunk this year and Cal State shrunk even more. No wonder that San Fran U Phoenix building shown in the Chronicle article looks so nice!
To answer your question about faculty, in my experience the for-profits are *not* hiring qualified faculty. Or they're hiring faculty that are technically qualified (e.g. have achieved the required degree) but who have such poor skills otherwise that they can't get hired at other schools - even when there's a labour shortage.
Hey anonymous 2:40: fuck you. I teach at a Prop. U. and I believe I'm every bit as qualified as anyone at an SLAC or R1. I'm not as lucky as they are, but that's another matter.
First, there have been a few pro-prop u articles in the Chronicle over the past year and I noticed a huge increase in university of phoenix advertising. In a sense, the chronicle is kissing butt to get ad money.

That said, I taught at a Prop U for almost five years and the fact is most of the faculty were not qualified to teach at a CC degree-wise, but some colleges that switched from 2-year to 4-year have faculty grandfathered in without the appropriate degrees. My prop u practically went to the high school and pay for transcripts; students really just had to show up and sign papers. When these same students went to apply to any other college they got a slap in the face with the admissions requirements and the fact the staff would not hold their hands or act as personal servants. But it one is willing to pay, sigh...

But I think the fact that the business community uses a degree as an marker to get invited for an interview is a major factor in prop u success.
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