Sunday, May 04, 2014


A Different Approach to Class-Based Affirmative Action

I get a little twitchy when I read about class-based affirmative action in university admissions, though probably not for the reasons you might expect.  

The underlying premise of the debate around affirmative action in university admissions seems to be that seats on the lifeboat are limited; therefore, allocation of those seats is a matter of high import.  Some argue that those seats should be allocated according to pure academic merit, whatever that means.  Some argue for a merit-based system with some recognition of different opportunities for ‘merit.’  Some argue for demographic representation.  Some argue for merit until they notice their own group being disadvantaged.  But every single one of those positions accepts as given the idea that seats on the lifeboat are finite.

What if they weren’t?  What if, with apologies to Roy Scheider, we had a bigger boat?

I’m thinking we should start with the obvious.  Let’s equalize per-student funding among sectors of public higher education.  Give the same per-student support to community colleges as given to four-year teaching colleges (and/or Master’s level universities) and flagship research universities.  This isn’t as radical a proposal as, say, Sara Goldrick-Rab’s idea to defund private universities and make the first two years of public college free; this could be accommodated within existing structures.  (Her proposal and mine aren’t mutually exclusive; I’m just offering an easier place to start.)

Until we do that, we’re creating an artificial shortage.  If we starve out the institutions that serve the vast majority of students, and instead pour money into universities that turn away most of their applicants, then the shortage over which we fight is inevitable.  

But wait, I imagine one saying, what about the costs of research?

Research should be paid for with research funding.  I’m talking about institutional funding.

Giving community college students parity in institutional support would allow us to address some issues of long standing.  We could finally support reasonable full-time faculty ratios, for example.  We could ramp up our Institutional Research capabilities, a notable weakness of the sector as a whole.  (HCC is a lucky exception.)  We would have the resources with which to conduct long-term local or regional experiments.  We could ramp up both our IT capabilities and our human staffing, the better to capture the best gains from technology while preserving the human touch that we consistently find makes the most difference.

Even better, we’d be able to provide opportunities that capable students with difficult lives could actually take.  

The whole “undermatching” literature, of which class-based affirmative action is conceptually a piece, assumes that the only reason an academically capable student would turn down a distant, exclusive institution for a local and inclusive one is ignorance.  I reject that out of hand.  Students have three-dimensional lives.  They have family obligations.  They work for pay.  They even -- horrors! -- have regional preferences just because they do.  (When elites have those, we call it “taste.”)  

If the seats to which local students have access are just as good as the seats that are currently so contested, then many of the battles we’re currently fighting would quickly become moot.  And that would be okay.  

Or, we can continue to fund sectors in inverse proportion to their percentages of students of color.  Though I have to admit having a hard time imagining a principled defense of that.

I’m thinking, let’s start with parity.  Let the accessible colleges have the funding to make themselves worthier of the students who need them.  If that’s not enough, then we can have that discussion.  But until then, we’ll be stuck arguing in circles.

I'll vote for these suggestions. Thanks.
Great idea (and not just because I've argued for it in the past). If we got what the universities get, our tuition would drop by a huge amount for the same level of service. Of course, we can't get what they get now once the pie gets split across so many more students, but it would make a big difference in our student's lives.

I'll even go so far as to accept two tiers of funding (lower division and upper division) as long as it is done equitably, say treating an expensive program like AS nursing as if it was upper division. It just makes no sense for them to get so much more money than we do when we use full time faculty to teach calculus and chemistry (including some labs) and half of our freshmen composition classes, and they use mostly adjuncts to teach the same classes.
This will never happen because the infrastructure costs of having research on a campus are not paid by research funds and no amount of wishing will make that so. Research doesn't even remotely come close to paying for its self - which is why it is so tragic that so many of the Master's granting institutions are turning to grants for additional funding streams. Unless they do it very very well, grants will just exhaust their faculty without bringing in enough overhead funds to really make a difference.

The critical flaw in this though is that it would require more public funding of education (because the R-1 flagship universities are not just going to lay down and take a gigantic spending cut.) It's not a bad idea but it is pretty much DOA in the current climate.
I think the sticking point is "just as good as the seats that are currently so contested."

In my opinion/observation, no amount of funding will do this. What makes Harvard and Yale good is that everyone on the Supreme Court attended them. What makes a school "good" (for the portion of the population that cares deeply about selective colleges) is the value of its network and its credential; those disconnect from cost or academic quality well before you get to "highly selective."

In other words, you can probably learn as much at U-Mass as at Harvard, but in NYC or DC, the Harvard degree will get you a lot of openings that the U-Mass degree won't.

Are you arguing over seats on a lifeboat or seats on the Titanic?

When 40% of recent college grads have taken jobs that need no college education, and 20% of recent college grads can find only part-time work (recent BLS stats), the risk/reward assessment of higher education for prospective students changes. Isn't higher ed already past the tipping point? If higher ed doesn't reliably enhance career outcomes, public funding should be going down, not up, correct?
I like new approach.
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Because the NEH is so flush these days, research in the humanities will be funded by research funding.
The seats on the yacht aren't limited because yachts cost more than motorboats. The PURPOSE of the yacht is to cost more than the motorboats.
These aren't new ideas. There are reasons they are not implemented.

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