Wednesday, December 19, 2007


Ad Hoc Extra Credit


Oh God, no.

No, no, no.

Nein. Nyet. Non. Huh-uh. Negative.

I'll qualify that. Extra credit that's built into the syllabus from day one, available to all students equally and in advance, can be defensible. I'd worry if it counted for very much -- a course grade should ultimately reflect performance on the core of the course, rather than the periphery -- but I can see an argument for moving a B to a B-plus in an art history class if the student does (and documents) some museum trips, say.

But this is the time of year when the kid who has been slacking or failing shows up, filled with sudden enthusiasm, begging for extra credit to make up for the work he either didn't do or did badly earlier.

From an administrator's perspective, this is a lawsuit waiting to happen. Don't do it!

Imagine: Johnny and Suzy are both on the cusp of failing. Johnny shows up and asks for extra credit assignments, and the prof. gives them. Suzy doesn't, believing that the grading system outlined on the syllabus is to be taken literally. Johnny passes with the extra points, and Suzy fails. Suzy finds out next semester that Johnny had an option she didn't have. She files suit, claiming disparate treatment. Your defense is...what, exactly?

Assume that Suzy has a couple of the magical 'protected class' memberships, too. Now we're talking civil rights lawsuits, with adverse publicity, multiplied damages, political overtones, etc.

Yuck, yuck, yuck.

Or: Johnny writes an extra credit paper, which turns out to be plagiarized. Can you fail him for cheating on an assignment that wasn't supposed to be part of the course grade in the first place? (If not, then doesn't Johnny have every incentive in the world to take a shot, gambling that he won't get caught?) Or maybe it isn't plagiarized, but it's a real steamer. Do you ignore it on the grounds that it's awful, or do you give something in recognition that it was extra work (even if the extra work stunk)?

I worry, too, about the cumulative effect of students encountering multiple extra-credit bailouts over the years. If students start to expect end-of-semester freebies to bail out three months of slacking, what, exactly, are we teaching them? Sometimes I think "suck it up" is one of the most valuable lessons we can teach. It's certainly an important life skill, and one that comes in handy at entry-level jobs. A kid who hasn't learned to suck it up is in for a rude shock when he gets to his first real job.

(I have a similar worry about makeup exams. A wise erstwhile colleague once shared her secret for getting around makeup exams: she'd give, say, four tests in her class, and count the best three. The students either stepped up or dropped the class. It struck me as brilliant, and I used it in my own classes to wonderful effect. Not having to distinguish 'excused' from 'unexcused' absences meant that I had to stop playing 'lie detector' when students told me stories about their lives. Grades reflected actual performance, rather than creative whining. Students either got their drama under control, or dropped the class and tried again when they were ready.)

Even-handedness can sometimes seem cold, and it can require saying 'no' when it would be easier not to. But the costs of ad hoc special favors are just too high to sustain. Fight the temptation!

We just started a new quarter at my place, and I'm in the process of living through student shock and dismay when they find that missing a quiz because they are 15 minutes late to class means that they missed the quiz. One student actually asked me "How many minutes am I allowed to be late?" Uh, zero? How does zero sound?

I also do not give makeup exams except under extraordinary circumstances. If a student misses an exam, he's got a zero. But at the end of the quarter, everyone can choose to take one of their three exams over again, without penalty (although I will accept the grade on the retake, higher or lower). That way if they've had a sudden epiphany since one of the exams, or was having a really bad day on the day of the exam, they get another shot at it. It seems fair to me.
Full agreement. A lot of my syllabus is designed to avoid me having to be a lie detector, which I hate. And it rules out individual extra credit--don't even ask, it says. Thanks for the back up--if pressured, I'll mention legal reasons.
I don't believe in extra credit. Why give someone a chance to make up what they were supposed to do all semester?

I love the suggestions you gave. I hate having to play the lie detector. I am going to implement them this semester.
I'm with Dance on this one. I outline in the syllabus that there is no extra credit. Further, if they ask more than once (and I do write it down) then I take points AWAY. This is also outlined in the syllabus. I give five tests and a final. They get to drop the lowest test score but not the final. The make-up exams are only available to the student the last two days of class before finals week. This keeps most of the students away from the make-up test situation. It has worked out very nicely at an institution where, apparently, the level of coddling before college was extremely high.

I hadn't thought of the legal ramifications of extra credit. Now I have even more reason to keep the hard line. Sweet!
This was my first semester teaching (at BigU), and when I graded the first (of only two) exams, I realized that I'd horribly messed something up with a section that was worth 20% of the exam. About a third of the students got it anyways; the others ended up with a big chunk out of their exam scores. What to do? I didn't want to just add points, or curve the exam (with such a lopsided distribution, it wouldn't have really helped anyways), so I pondered for a few weeks and then offered the entire class an extra credit option worth 5% of the grade (the exam was worth 20%). It wasn't easy, though - I took my leaf from the book of an instructor I'd had as an undergrad; it was accept/not-accept; involved a minimum of three hours' worth of work on their part (some told me it took them 9-10 hours); and reinforced the course material. Basically, at the end of each "chapter" of material, I'd offered a study guide comprised of some 10-15 questions; the extra credit was to answer (with a minimum of one paragraph) at least 30 questions, no more than 3 of which could come from any one section.

The ones who chose to do it (about 2/3 of the class) did an excellent job of it; I didn't have to decline credit for anyone. Everyone in the class had equal opportunity to participate in it, and although it wasn't on the syllabus, I felt it addressed a screwup on my part that really could have affected some of their grades. So I feel comfortable with it.
Extra credit is an extra headache, I agree. I used it only once when we had a guest speaker coming and I was afraid the audience would be sparse. Every student who attended got an extra 5% on an assignment. But students who couldn't attend for one reason or another had to be given an opportunity to earn the extra credit (so I made them research and write a one-page study on the career and influence of the scholar who visited).

It's simply not worth the headache in any way shape or form. That said, I'm less opposed to make-up exams because our university will go ahead and schedule these, anyway, at a cost of $40 to the student (none of that going to the prof) and then order the instructor to prepare a special exam for such-and-such time. I'd rather avoid the students having to make the application, my having to write a special exam at the registrar's whim and often quite a ways after the term's up, so I tell the students to either see me for a make-up or contact special needs if appropriate.

I realize that, administratively, that's probably horrible of me -- undermining policy and all that -- but I really got tired of being jerked around and having to write and mark, as I did one term, three different special exams for students who went through the normal "make up exam" channels.
I fully agree with the extra credit thoughts. The way mine works (as outlined at the beginning in the syllabus) is that they have an opportunity to do some work that can add an extra test score to their grade (that's in addition to the other stuff, not replacing anything). The extra work is on-line multiple choice quizzes from each text chapter (on the publisher's website--they need either a new copy of the textbook or to buy access--for $15)--they have to do all the chapters to get the extra credit; they can take each chapter quiz as often as they like. It's a modified mastert-learning scoring.

I do give makeup exams; I have way too many students whose employers send them out of town (documented) at inopportune times. But there's a procedure, which starts with the assumption that they can notify me in advance that they'll miss the test and requires that they do the makeup within a week of the origninal test date. Otherwise it's a zero. Also the makeup test is harder (and they're told that it will be) than the original.

I get very few requests for makeups. And generally about 1/3 to 40% do the extra credit work.
I'm with seeking solace. It was their job to work harder or get help during the semester, so why would I let them write a paper to make up for their shoddy performance during the semester?

I also appreciate the legal argument--it might help stop their whining in its tracks.
Wonderful post and comments on a very touchy topic! Thanks! I may turn this into a posting for our teaching center site!

My favorite (and only) extra credit is that if they weren't happy with their grade on the exam, they can earn up to half the points back by explaining in writing each and every mistake and why the right answer is the right answer. The serious ones do it. The marking has never been a burden.
I spent all day yesterday trading emails with a student who was pleading for a way to improve his grade -- after the last class day, after the final, and after grades are turned in!

He failed to turn in two of five reading exercises. No late papers accepted. After the grades are in he emails me to find out the details of his grade and claims he did the 4th assignment and got an 88. Okay, then I say, do you have the graded assignment? No, he answers I already threw them all away but I do have it on my computer. (I'm inwardly groaning, figuring that he is probably writing it right this moment and wondering how to handle it). Then he reports that he deleted all his computer files too. And then he asks for extra credit "because his grades are really important to him." Umm . . . the semester is over I tell him. I can't offer you extra credit without creating a disadvantage for his classmates. Sigh. He gets angry. I inform him of the grade appeal process and cc the Dean. I decide to stop emailing him but his real problem is not the missing assignment it is the fact that he wrote the worst research paper in the class!

So happy I am not teaching in the spring.
I had a speech prof in college that drove me nuts because of two things:

1. When he published our mid-term grade, he dropped everyone's grade by a full letter "so they were motivated to work harder". He admitted as much to me when I went to ask how I was getting a B when I'd gotten an A on every project.

2. He offered plentiful extra credit for helping him with research for a book he was writing.
The Rules Examiner for the State of Maine Northern concurs.
The only time I ever remember doing a make-up assignment in college was an intro geology class my first semester. I missed a one-day field trip -- getting breakfast in the 10 minutes between when the cafeteria opened and when the bus was supposed to leave, running into the parking lot just as the bus was pulling away.

The prof gave me two choices: write a 5-page paper on a topic of my choosing, or spend an impending 3-day weekend on the annual geology department field trip.

Obviously, I went for the trip, which was an entirely fascinating experience and maybe some of the best learning I did all semester. Just a handful of students, all geology majors, mostly seniors, driving around southeastern Oregon, camping, looking at interesting geological features.

I almost became a geology minor, but I couldn't hack chemistry.
On extra credit: I'm so thankful I was a music major as an undergrad.

The great/awful thing about majoring in music when it comes to grading: You either perform well at the appointed time, or you don't. And if you don't show up, you're out. And since I was one of about 50 flute majors, I was EASILY replaced.

Music school is all about performing well under stress. And extra-credit is NEVER on the table. You can't erase a bad performance from someone's memory (or...even your own).

So, while I'm now in a completely different field, no, extra credit is not on the table--ever. If students complain I remind them that they're fortunate that they don't receive the "Do you enjoy being stupid?" lectures that some music majors get...(It's a cold, cold world in the arts).
I've been a self-confessed wimp when it comes to student requests for make-up and extra-credit. I have to talk myself into "NO" before I can deliver the message to the student. However, from here on out I'll remember what Dean Dad said about the potential legal liability of extra-credit and I'll just let the no's fly right out.
I give students two optional extra credit assigments in my Freshman English courses. Out of a possible 1000 points in the class, each ec assignment is worth 5 points--enough to possibly bump someone from a B+/A- or whatever but not anywhere near enough to save drowning students. The assignments are designed to help ME become a better instructor, actually. We have a set number of reading comprehension quizzes in our class which test materials that I know I'm keeping for sure and/or have used before. I use two extra credit pop reading quizzes to check student's comprehension and application of difficult, new material. If most students who have read the material do okay and seem enthusiastic about the readings then I consider keeping those readings for next time.
Everybody seems happy with this system as it rewards people who are doing the work and grappling with difficult course materials.

Students know that these are the only extra credit assignments I offer and I have literally NEVER had an a request for additional extra credit. I hope this means I'm doing something right!

At my CC we don't give extra credit...nor have a play period after lunch! ;-)

Seriously, one faculty started a trend by asking her students the first day of class "Who needs to pass this class?"...a typical whine at the end of the term from students who didn't maximize their potential for 16 weeks. It seems to work!

Secondly, I wonder about some of the faculty posting above who give two or three exams during a term and how that relates to students with identified learning disabilities. Many in that category do not do well on MC/TF exams. Research shows only about 18% of the student population does excel on those assessments. Are two/three exams the only assessment in the course? How is student learning documented beyond a few exams?
I disagree with both aspects of your post.

1. Extra credit can be used effectively to reward those who go above and beyond the normal course of learning. In a swine production course I took, any student could receive extra credit for volunteering in the meat lab to slaughter and process hogs. Learning how to do this was part of swine production, but could not be fit into the class.

2. Makeup exams are very important, especially for students who are very active in their field. I have had classes that coincided with presenting papers at national conferences. Fortunately, my professors have been understanding and allowed for makeup tests to be given. I have also missed tests to interview for jobs and to go on field trips for others classes. There are plenty of good reasons for a student to miss a class and very few good reasons for a professor to be cold hearted and potentially make a student graduate in 5 years instead of 4 years.
Anonymous, I said I also do not give makeup exams except under extraordinary circumstances. All of the things you mention are extraordinary, AND they are things that the student can inform me about before hand. But this morning I gave an exam. Fifteen minutes before the exam I get e-mail from the student: "I have a sore throat and cough; I can't come for the exam." And two hours later, who was sitting at the next table in the cafeteria, enjoying lunch with his friends? (Yeah, right next to me.)

There is far too much of that in my 30 years of experience.

If you can't arrange things ahead of time, it better be because you got hit by a car. Which, by the way, is another extraordinary circumstance.
re: Anonymous @ 1:07. The students who have to miss class to present a paper at a conference are often the ones who go above and beyond the call of duty. They hand in assignments early when they miss class, and they notify the instructor well in advance of any potential conflicts. I also say no makeups except under extraordinary circumstances with documentation, and I think this is an extraordinary circumstance which can easily be documented.

re: everything else. I tell my students that extra credit means that you have to do something above and beyond the normal work, so I do not give it as a way to boost a grade for missed assignments. I do offer it, however, when the students as a group have been doing particularly well and the extra credit will help them keep up the good work. Usually I offer it only to those who have done all the exams/quizzes/writing assignments (depends on the course) to reinforce the idea that it is something "extra" and not a replacement for something missed.

Another thing that works really well for me is giving options instead of extra credit. For example, they could take two exams, or do one exam and one essay. Or, I offer eight short answer questions on an exam and they answer six. This has worked well because they feel like they have some sort of say in their final grade, and they can't complain to me because they're the ones who chose the work.

On a similar note, I had a math prof in college that let us choose how much we wanted everything to be worth (homework average, quiz average, three exams). Each one had to be within a certain range - that is, we couldn't have one exam worth 99% of the final grade - and each item had a default percentage if we didn't tell him what we wanted it to be worth. That worked really well because if you did poorly on something, you could lower its value in your final average.

Sorry for hijacking the comments!
Usually I would prefer not to give extra credit or make up exams too. But like Tracey, I once had to give a sort of extra credit thingy to make up for my own bad judgment.

I gave my students two assignments fairly closely spaced together, right at the end of the semester. The second one, which they were already likely to be late on due to not starting until after the first was complete, had to be marked and returned to them within a week if they were to be able to use the feedback on the final exam.

As you can imagine, more than half the class were more than a week late on this assignment. I too, was stressed with marking, and didn't notice how many students were affected. I returned the assignments, we discussed the answers in class, and then I went to implement the usual policy that I don't accept work that is handed in after it has been discussed in class.

At this point, around 25% of the class would have FAILED THE COURSE due to not having handed in that piece of work.

So the mistakes were really all mine: badly planned series of assignments, not paying enough attention to who had handed in and who hadn't, etc. (It was my first semester teaching).

The only real option, other than a fail rate that was around 10 times the dept average, was to offer extra credit.
I forgot to mention that I also offer extra credit to hold myself accountable for my actions. While they lose points for handing in late assignments, I add a few points (nothing significant) to an assignment if I take too long to hand it back. I do this to show them that while I expect a lot from them, I have the same standards for myself.
I think the point is that, if extra-credit is to be offered, it must be done so to EVERYONE in the class, not just the deadbeat grade-grubbers who come a-begging at semester's end.

Whenever I have offered it, it's always the grade-grubbers who ask then don't do the extra-credit assignment. The high scorers often just cement their grades or give themselves a little perk by doing it.
After reading these comments and reflecting on my (eek!!) almost 20 years in higher education, I'm starting to wonder if the whole "extra credit to try to raise a grade" is an urban legend. Seriously. I've never met anyone who has ever offered extra credit to one student (or ever admitted to it) to help said student raise the final grade after goofing off/having unfortunate circumstances. Even the ones who are offering extra credit to portions of the class and not the whole class are choosing the students to offer the opportunity, not giving it to the whiners.

Seriously, I am wondering. Ask your students if their roommate commits suicide if the surviving student gets all A's for that semester. It's officially listed as an urban legend, yet I'll bet all your students have at least heard that.
Great discussion here and so interesting to see the variations of how we deal with these issues.

In my writing classes I always offer extra credit for attending a lecture on campus and writing a rhetorical analysis. My goal is to get students to participate more fully in intellectual conversations and to continue to use the analysis skills we are going over in class. They can also analyze certain essays I direct them to. I want them to have a chance to pursue topics of interest to them beyond what we are reading and discussing in class.

The amount of points depends on quality and quantity of the 3-4 page analysis. Surprisingly few students take advantage of this, however. Luckily we don't have exams in our writing classes, so we don't have to deal with makeups, but we do have a required attendance policy in our first year comp class: after missing 10% (one week) of classes with no questions asked (3 in MWF or 2 in TR), then the grade drops an entire letter grade for the term. No excused or unexcused absences. No need to consider whether someone is truly sick or not. In other writing classes, I just use a participation factor - every absence drops the grade slightly. Again, doesn't matter the reason for the absence. And 3 tardies = 1 absence, so that's easy to calculate.
Here's a history colleague's suggestion for dealing with slackers and extra credit: State in the syllabus that no extra credit will be counted for students who have attended less than 50% of the class. In fact, if the student earns F but has attended less than 50% of the class, there's nothing that can be done to raise the F to a D.

I added that EC will only be counted for students who have completed all the exams and quizzes and who have a better than 60% attendance rate. Problem solved.
The students who ask for extra credit in my classes (high school English) are almost always students who have not bothered to turn in assignments. After I explained that extra means "in addition to", not "instead of", and that the only way I would even consider giving it was if they made up all the missing assignments (for no points as the assignments are invariably past the final due date for late work) they usually slunk out of my room. I like the legal angle though. I'll have to try it.
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Răng móm là một dạng khuyết điểm răng miệng khá phổ biến. Song tâm lý rất nhiều người luôn mong muốn khắc phục khuyết điểm này mà không cần đến phòng khám răng. Vậy việc áp dụng các cách chữa răng móm tại nhà như mọi người vẫn truyền cho nhau có thực sự mang đến hiệu quả không?

1. Các cách thức chữa trị móm tại nhà

Thông thường những trường hợp áp dụng trị răng móm tại gia sẽ vận dụng các cách như dùng tay đẩy răng hay là tự tạo mắc cài gắn lên răng. dù ở tuổi đang dậy thì và ở cấp độ móm rất nhẹ thì những cách thức này có thể cho hiệu quả. tuy nhiên thực sự rất nguy hiểm vì rất dễ dàng xảy ra sai lệch, làm răng bị xô đẩy theo hướng khác không như ý.

hàm móm1.Jpg

dùng tay đẩy răng ko mang tới hiệu quả và gây nguy hiểm

Còn ở độ tuổi đã trưởng thành thì việc áp dụng các cách thức làm hết móm tại nhà như dùng tay đẩy hoàn toàn không mang tới hiệu quả gì bởi răng và xương hàm đã cố định chắc chắn, rất khó dịch chuyển. Đặc biệt những trường hợp móm bởi xương hàm gây ra thì chỉ có sự vào cuộc của nha sỹ vào vị trí và thế mọc của răng cùng với đó can thiệp sâu vào xương hàm mới mang lại hiệu quả.

cho nên hãy từ bỏ ý định tìm cách thức chữa móm tại nhà bởi không có thực tế nào thể hiện được kết quả nó mang đến mà chỉ có những dẫn chứng về việc tự điều chỉnh tại gia và gây biến chứng nguy hiểm.

thay thế vì tìm cách điều trị móm tại nhà, bạn hãy đến trực tiếp trung tâm nha khoa để bác sĩ kiểm định và tiến hành trị để đảm bảo kết quả thẩm mỹ và an toàn tuyệt đối.

Bạn cũng nên biết >> niềng răng móm bao lâu

hai. Hãy từ bỏ các cách chữa móm tại nhà

như đã nói ở trên, các cách làm hết móm tại gia không chỉ không mang lại hiệu quả mà còn gây những biến chứng nguy hiểm.

hiện tại với kỹ thuật nha khoa hiện đại, răng móm ko còn là vấn đề đáng lo âu nữa. tuy thế để biết giải pháp nào hợp lý, chúng ta cần được xác định được mình thuộc dạng răng móm nào.

những trường hợp răng móm được chia làm hai dạng là móm do răng và móm do xương hàm. Cũng nhiều trường hợp bị cùng với đó cả răng và xương hàm.

cách thức điều trị móm tại nhà ko mang đến hiệu quả với trường hợp móm do răng

Đây là tình hình bởi răng hàm bên dưới phát triển quá mức nên chìa ra ngoài so với cung hàm và so với hàm trên. Lúc này có hai giải pháp điều chỉnh mang đến hiệu quả là niềng răng và mài răng bọc sứ.

Với phương pháp mài răng bọc sứ, bác sỹ sẽ tiến hành mài răng những chiếc bị móm sao cho thẳng đứng và cân chuẩn trên cung hàm, sau đó thiết kế mão sứ bọc lên bên ngoài. phương pháp này mang đến hiệu quả nhanh chóng và thẩm mỹ cao bởi răng sứ giống hệt răng thật. tuy như thế chỉ được ứng dụng cho các trường hợp móm nhẹ do răng chỉ được mài ở cấp độ nhất định.

hiệu quả phẫu thuật hàm móm2.Png

Mài răng bọc sứ mang tới hiệu quả nhanh

Với giải pháp niềng răng, bác sĩ sẽ sử dụng các khí cụ như mắc cài, dây cung hay là khay niềng để liên quan lực kéo lên răng, đưa răng di chuyển chầm chậm tới vị trí cân chuẩn, phương thẳng đứng trên cung hàm. Đây là phương pháp được đa số mọi người tin dùng và được các chuyên gia nha khoa ưa chuộng nhất do mang lại hiệu quả thẩm mỹ tối ưu, vĩnh viễn và tuyệt đối an toàn.

Khi bạn tìm cách trị răng móm tại gia là bạn đang muốn tiết kiệm giá cả. Niềng răng sẽ khiến bạn áp dụng điều đó do hiện nay đã có khá nhiều loại khí cụ niềng răng với chi phí khác nhau để đáp ứng điều kiện chi trả của mọi đối tượng khách hàng.

mắc cài niềng răng.Jpg

cách trị liệu móm tại nhà ko mang lại hiệu quả với trường hợp móm do xương hàm

Móm do răng ko thể khắc phục tại nhà, và móm bởi xương hàm lại càng không thể. Lúc này bác sỹ sẽ phải yêu cầu phẫu thuật chỉnh hàm bằng cách cắt bớt phần xương hàm dưới, sau đó đẩy lùi về phía sau theo tỷ lệ chuẩn khớp cắn giữa hai hàm.
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